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India is about 1/3 the size of the United States, India is the seventh largest country in the world, the second most populous country in the world. ● ● India is the largest democracy in the world. ● ● The Kumbh Mela (or Grand Pitcher Festival) is a huge Hindu religious festival that takes place in India every 12 years. In 2001, 60 million people attended, breaking the record for the world’s biggest gathering. The mass of people was photographed from space by a satellite. ● ● To avoid polluting the elements (fire, earth, water, air), followers of Zoroastrianism in India don’t bury their dead, but instead leave bodies in buildings called “Towers of Silence” for the vultures to pick clean. ● ● India has one of the world’s highest rates of abortion. ● ● Most Indians live on less than two dollars a day. ● ● Cows are considered one of humankind’s seven mothers because they offer milk as does one’s natural mother. ● ● Dancing is one of India’s most highly developed arts and was an integral part of worship in the inner shrines of every temple. It is notable for its expressive hand movements. ● ● Many Indian wives will never say their husband’s name aloud, as it is a sign of disrespect. When addressing him, the wife will use several indirect references, such as “ji” or “look here” or “hello,” or even refer to him as the father of her child. ● ● The Indian flag has three horizontal bands of color: saffron for courage and sacrifice, white for truth and peace, and green for faith, fertility, and chivalry. An emblem of a wheel spinning used to be in the center of the white band, but when India gained independence, a Buddhist dharma chakra, or wheel of life, replaced the spinning wheel. ● ● ● ● ● The temples of Khajuraho are famous for their erotic sculptures and are one of the most popular tourist attractions in India. Scholars still debate the purpose of such explicit portrayals of sexual intercourse, which sometimes involve animals. ● ● The earliest cotton in the world was spun and woven in India. ● ● The Himalayas—from the Sanskrit hima, meaning “snow,” and alaya, meaning “abode”—are found in the north of India. They extend 1,500 miles and are slowly growing taller, by almost an inch (2.5 cm) a year. Several ancient Indian monasteries are found nestled in the grandeur of these mountains. ● ● With 150,000 post offices, India has the largest postal network in the world. ● ● The Bengal tiger is India’s national animal. ● ● Alexander the Great of Macedon (356-323 B.C.) was one of the first important figures to bring India into contact with the West. After his death, a link between Europe and the East would not be restored until Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama (1460-1524) landed in Calicut, India, in 1498. ● ● The British Raj, or British rule, lasted from 1858 to 1947 (although they had a strong presence in India since the 1700s). British influence is still seen in Indian architecture, education system, transportation, and politics. ● ● Every major world religion is represented in India. Additionally, Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism all originated in India. ● ● India has the world’s largest movie industry, based in the city of Mumbai (known as the “City of Dreams”). The B in “Bollywood” comes from Bombay, the former name for Mumbai. Almost all Bollywood movies are musicals. ● ● Mohandas K. Gandhi (1869-1948) is known around the world as Mahatma, which is an honorific title meaning “Great Soul” in the ancient Indian language of Sanskrit. ● ● ● ● ● The lotus is sacred to both Hindus and Buddhists. ● The Bahá'í house of worship in Delhi, known as the “Lotus Temple,” is shaped like a lotus flower with 27 gigantic “petals” that are covered in marble. ● ● The banyan, or Indian fig tree, is considered a symbol of immortality and is mentioned in many Indian myths and legends. This self-renewing plant is India’s national tree. ● ● Marigold flowers are used as decoration for Hindu marriages and are a symbol of good fortune and happiness. ● ● The name “India” derives from the River Indus, which most likely is derived from the Sanskrit sindhu, meaning “river.” The official Sanskrit name of India is Bharat, after the legendary king in the epicMahabharata. ● ● Indians made significant contributions to calculus, trigonometry, and algebra. The decimal system was invented in India in 100 B.C. The concept of zero as a number is also attributed to India. ● ● The national fruit of India is the mango. The national bird is the peacock, which was initially bred for food. ● ● Hindi and English are the official languages of India. The government also recognizes 17 other languages (Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Nepali, Manipuri, Konkani, Kannada, Kashmiri, Malayalam, Marathi, Oriya, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, and Urdu). Apart from these languages, about 1,652 dialects are spoken in the country. ● ● India has the world’s third largest road network at 1.9 million miles. It also has the world’s second largest rail network, which is the world’s largest civilian employer. ● ● Bathing in the Ganges in particular is thought to take away a person’s sins. It is not unusual to spread a loved one’s ashes in the Ganges. ● ● Most Indians rinse their hands, legs, and face before eating a meal. ● ● It is traditional to wear white, not black, to a funeral in India. Widows will often wear white in contrast to the colorful clothes of married or single women. ● ● India is the world’s largest tea producer, and tea (chai) is its most popular beverage. ● ● The Taj Mahal (“crown palace”) was built by Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan (1592-1666) for his beloved wife Mumtaz Mahal (1593-1631). Made of marble it has intricate workmanship. It took 22,000 workmen 22 years to complete it. ● ● The first and greatest civilization in ancient India developed around the valley of the Indus River (now Pakistan) around 3000 B.C. Called the Indus Valley civilization, this early empire was larger than any other empire, including Egypt and Mesopotamia. ● ● After the great Indus Civilization collapsed in 2000 B.C., groups of Indo-Europeans called Aryans (“noble ones”) traveled to northwest India and reigned during what is called the Vedic age. The mingling of ideas from the Aryan and Indus Valley religions formed the basis of Hinduism, and the gods Shiva, Kali, and Brahma all have their roots in Aryan civilization. The Aryans also recorded the Vedas, the first Hindu scriptures, and introduced a caste system based on ethnicity and occupation. ● ● Chandragupta Maurya (340-290 B.C.), a leader in India who established the Mauryan Empire (321-185 B.C.), was guarded by a band of women on horseback. ● Sanskrit is the mother of all the European ● languages. Sanskrit is the most suitable language for computer software reported in Forbes magazine, ● July 1987. ● Ayurveda is the earliest school of medicine known to humans.Charaka, the father of medicine consolidated Ayurveda 2500 years ago. ● India never invaded any country in her last 10,000 years of history. ● India invented the Number System. Zero was invented by Aryabhatta. ● India never invaded any country in her last 10,000 years of history. ● India invented the Number System. Zero was invented by Aryabhatta. ● ● India never invaded any country in her last 10,000 years of history. ● India invented the Number System. Zero was invented by Aryabhatta. ● ●
Source: lawmin.nic.in
Constitution

India, also known as Bharat, is a Union of States.It is a Sovereign Socialist Secular Democratic Republic with a parliamentary system of government. The Republic is governed in terms of the Constitution of India which was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on 26th November 1949 and came into force on 26th January 1950.

The Constitution provides for a Parliamentary form of government which is federal in structure with certain unitary features. The constitutional head of the Executive of the Union is the President. As per Article 79 of the Constitution of India, the council of the Parliament of the Union consists of the President and two Houses known as the Council of States (Rajya Sabha) and the House of the People (Lok Sabha). Article 74(1) of the Constitution provides that there shall be a Council of Ministers with the Prime Minister as its head to aid and advise the President, who shall exercise his/her functions in accordance to the advice. The real executive power is thus vested in the Council of Ministers with the Prime Minister as its head.

The Council of Ministers is collectively responsible to the House of the People (Lok Sabha). Every State has a Legislative Assembly. Certain States have an upper House also called State Legislative Council. There is a Governor for each state who is appointed by the President. Governor is the Head of the State and the executive power of the State is vested in him. The Council of Ministers with the Chief Minister as its head advises the Governor in the discharge of the executive functions. The Council of the Ministers of a state is collectively responsible to the Legislative Assembly of the State.

The Constitution distributes legislative powers between Parliament and State legislatures as per the lists of entries in the Seventh Schedule to the Constitution. The residuary powers vest in the Parliament. The centrally administered territories are called Union Territories.

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

CONTENTS

THE UNION AND ITS TERRITORY

Name and territory of the Union.  Admission or establishment of new States. Formation of new States and lteration of areas, boundaries or names of existing  States.

CITIZENSHIP

Citizenship at the commencement of the Constitution. Rights of citizenship of certain persons who have migrated to India from Pakistan. Rights of citizenship of certain migrants to Pakistan. Rights of citizenship of certain persons of Indian origin residing outside India. Persons voluntarily acquiring citizenship of a foreign State not to be citizens. Continuance of the rights of citizenship. Parliament to regulate the right of citizenship by law.

 

FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS

Right to Equality. Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the fundamental rights.  Equality before law. Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth.  Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment. Abolition of Untouchability. Abolition of titles.

Right to Freedom. Protection of certain rights regarding freedom of speech, etc. Protection in respect of conviction for offences. Protection of life and personal liberty. Right to education. Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases.

Right against Exploitation. Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labour. Prohibition of employment of children in factories, etc.

Right to  Freedom of Religion Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of religion.  Freedom to manage religious affairs. Freedom as to payment of taxes for promotion of any particular religion.  Freedom as to attendance at religious instruction or religious worship in certain educational institutions.

Cultural and Educational Rights Protection of interests of minorities. Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions.

Saving of Certain Laws Saving of Laws providing for acquisition of estates, etc. Validation of certain Acts and Regulations.  Saving of laws giving effect to certain directive principles.

Right to Constitutional Remedies Remedies for enforcement of rights conferred by this Part. Power of Parliament to modify the rights conferred by this Part in their application to Forces, etc. Restriction on rights conferred by this Part while martial law is in force in any area. Legislation to give effect to the provisions of this Part.

DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY

State to secure a social order for the promotion of welfare of the people. Certain principles of policy to be followed by the State. Equal justice and free legal aid. Organisation of village panchayats. Right to work, to education and to public assistance in certain cases.  Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. Living wage, etc., for workers. Participation of workers in management of industries. Uniform civil code for the citizens. Provision for early childhood care and education to children below the age of six years. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. Duty of the State to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry.  Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance.  Separation of judiciary from executive. Promotion of international peace and security.

FUNDAMENTAL DUTIES

List of Fundamental duties.

The President and Vice-President

The President of India. Executive power of the Union. Election of President. Manner of election of President. Term of office of President. Eligibility for re-election. Qualifications for election as President. Conditions of President’s office. Oath or affirmation by the President. Procedure for impeachment of the President. Time of holding election to fill vacancy in the office of President and the term of office of person elected to fill casual vacancy.

The Vice-President of India. The Vice-President to be ex officio Chairman of the Council of States. The Vice-President to act as President or to discharge his functions during casual vacancies in the office, or during the absence, of President.  Election of Vice-President.  Term of office of Vice-President. Time of holding election to fill vacancy in the office of Vice-President and the term of office of person elected to fill casual vacancy. Oath or affirmation by the Vice-President. Discharge of President’s functions in other contingencies.  Matters relating to, or connected with, the election of a President or Vice-President. Power of President to grant pardons, etc., and to suspend, remit or commute sentences in certain cases. Extent of executive power of the Union. Council of Ministers  to aid and advise President.

The Attorney-General for India

Conduct of Government Business

Conduct of business of the Government of India.

Duties of Prime Minister as respects the furnishing of information to the President, etc.

PARLIAMENT

Constitution of Parliament.  Composition of the Council of States.  Composition of the House of the People. Readjustment after each census. Duration of Houses of Parliament. Qualification for membership of Parliament. Sessions of Parliament, prorogation and dissolution.  Right of President to address and send messages to Houses. Special address by the President. Rights of Ministers and Attorney-General as respects Houses.

Officers of Parliament

The Chairman and Deputy Chairman of the Council of States. Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the office of Deputy Chairman. Power of the Deputy Chairman or other person to perform the duties of the office of, or to act as, Chairman. The Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the House of the People. Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the offices of Speaker and Deputy Speaker. Power of the Deputy Speaker or other person to perform the duties of the office of, or to act as, Speaker. Salaries and allowances of the Chairman and Deputy Chairman and the Speaker and Deputy Speaker.  Secretariat of Parliament.

 

Conduct of Business

Oath or affirmation by members. Voting in Houses, power of Houses to act notwithstanding vacancies and quorum.

 

Disqualifications of Members

Vacation of seats.  Disqualifications for membership. Decision on questions as to disqualifications of members. Penalty for sitting and voting before making oath or affirmation or when not qualified or when disqualified. Powers, Privileges and Immunities of Parliament and its Members. Powers, privileges, etc., of the Houses of Parliament and of the members and committees thereof. Salaries and allowances of members.

 

Legislative Procedure

Provisions as to introduction and passing of Bill. Joint sitting of both Houses in certain cases.  Special procedure in respect of Money Bills. Definition of “Money Bills”.  Assent to Bills.

Procedure in Financial Matters

Annual financial statement. Procedure in Parliament with respect to estimates. Appropriation Bills.  Supplementary, additional or excess grants. Votes on account, votes of credit and exceptional grants. Special provisions as to financial Bills.

Procedure Generally

Rules of procedure. Regulation by law of procedure in Parliament in relation to financial business.  Language to be used in Parliament. Restriction on discussion in Parliament.  Courts not to inquire into proceedings of Parliament.

LEGISLATIVE  POWERS OF THE PRESIDENT

Power of President to promulgate Ordinances during recess of  Parliament.

THE UNION JUDICIARY

Establishment and constitution of Supreme Court.  Salaries, etc., of Judges. Appointment of acting Chief Justice.  Appointment of ad hoc judges. Attendance of retired Judges at sittings of the Supreme Court. Supreme Court to be a court of record. Seat of Supreme Court.  Original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court. Appellate jurisdiction of Supreme Court. Certificate for appeal to the Supreme Court. Jurisdiction and powers of the Federal Court under existing law to be exercisable by the Supreme Court. Special leave to appeal by the Supreme Court. Review of judgments or orders by the Supreme Court. Conferment on the Supreme Court of powers to issue certain writs.  Ancillary powers of Supreme Court. Law declared by Supreme Court to be binding on all courts. Enforcement of decrees and orders of Supreme Court and orders as to discovery, etc. Power of President to consult Supreme Court. Civil and judicial authorities to act in aid of the Supreme    Court.  Officers and servants and the expenses of the Supreme Court.

COMPTROLLER AND AUDITOR-GENERAL OF INDIA

Duties and powers of the Comptroller and Auditor-General. Audit reports.

THE STATES

Governors of States. Executive power of State.  Appointment of Governor.  Term of office of Governor. Qualifications for appointment as Governor.  Conditions of Governor’s office. Oath or affirmation by the Governor. Discharge of the functions of the Governor in certain contingencies.  Power of Governor to grant pardons, etc., and to suspend, remit or commute sentences in certain cases.  Extent of executive power of State.  Council of Ministers to aid and advise Governor. Other provisions as to Ministers.  The Advocate-General for the State. Conduct of business of the Government of a State. Duties of Chief Minister as respects the furnishing of information to Governor, etc.

THE STATE LEGISLATURE

Constitution of Legislatures in States. Abolition or creation of Legislative Councils in States.  Composition of the Legislative Assemblies. Duration of State Legislatures.  Qualification for membership of the State Legislature. Sessions of the State Legislature, prorogation and dissolution. Right of Governor to address and send messages to the House or Houses.  Special address by the Governor.   Rights of Ministers and Advocate-General as respects the Houses.  The Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the Legislative Assembly. Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the offices of Speaker  and Deputy Speaker. Power of the Deputy Speaker or other person to perform the duties of the office of, or to act as, Speaker. The Chairman and Deputy Chairman of the Legislative Council. Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the offices of Chairman and Deputy Chairman. Power of the Deputy Chairman or other person to perform the duties of the office of, or to act as, Chairman. The Chairman or the Deputy Chairman not to preside while a resolution for his removal from office is under consideration. Salaries and allowances of the Speaker and Deputy Speaker and the Chairman and Deputy Chairman.

Secretariat of State Legislature. Conduct of Business. Oath or affirmation by members. Voting in Houses, power of Houses to act notwithstanding vacancies and quorum. Disqualifications of Members.  Vacation of seats. Disqualifications for membership. Decision on questions as to disqualifications of members.  Penalty for sitting and voting before making oath or affirmation under article 188 or when not qualified or when disqualified. Powers, privileges and immunities of State Legislatures and their Members.  Powers, privileges, etc., of the Houses of Legislatures and of the members and committees thereof.  Salaries and allowances of members.  Legislative Procedure. Provisions as to introduction and passing of Bills. Restriction on powers of Legislative Council as to Bills other than Money Bills.  Special procedure in respect of Money Bills.  Definition of “Money Bills”.   Assent to Bills. Bills reserved for consideration. Procedure in Financial Matters.  Annual financial statement. Procedure in Legislature with respect to estimates.  Appropriation Bills. Supplementary, additional or excess grants.   Votes on account, votes of credit and exceptional grants. Special provisions as to financial Bills.   Regulation by law of procedure in the Legislature of the State in relation to financial business. Language to be used in the Legislature.  Restriction on discussion in the Legislature. Courts not to inquire into proceedings of the Legislature.

LEGISLATIVE  POWER OF THE GOVERNOR

Power of Governor to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Legislature.

THE  HIGH COURTS IN THE STATES

High Courts to be courts of record.  Constitution of High Courts.  Appointment and conditions of the office of a Judge of a High Court. Application of certain provisions relating to Supreme Court to High Courts. Oath or affirmation by Judges of High Courts. Restriction on practice after being a permanent Judge.  Salaries, etc., of Judges.  Transfer of a Judge from one High Court to another.  Appointment of acting Chief Justice. Appointment of additional and acting Judges.  Appointment of retired Judges at sittings of High Courts.   Jurisdiction of existing High Courts. Power of High Courts to issue certain writs.  Power of superintendence over all courts by the High Court.  Transfer of certain cases to High Court. Officers and servants and the expenses of High Courts.  Extension of jurisdiction of High Courts to Union territories.   Establishment of a common High Court for two or more States.

SUBORDINATE COURTS

Appointment of district judges. Validation of appointments of, and judgments, etc., delivered by, certain district judges. Recruitment of persons other than district judges to the judicial service. Control over subordinate courts. Interpretation. Application of the provisions of this Chapter to certain class or classes of magistrates.

THE UNION TERRITORIES

Administration of Union territories. Creation of local Legislatures or Council of Ministers or both for certain Union territories. Special provisions with respect to Delhi.  Provision in case of failure of constitutional machinery.  Power of administrator to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Legislature. Power of President to make regulations for certain Union territories. High Courts for Union territories.

THE PANCHAYATS

Definitions. Gram Sabha. Constitution of Panchayats. Composition of Panchayats.  Reservation of seats.  Duration of Panchayats, etc. Disqualifications for membership.  Powers, authority and responsibilities of Panchayats.  Powers to impose taxes by, and Funds of, the Panchayats. Constitution of Finance Commission to review financial position. Audit of accounts of Pachayats. Elections to the Panchayats. Application to Union  territories.   Continuance of existing laws and Panchayats. Bar to interference by courts in electoral matters.

THE MUNICPALITIES

Definitions. Constitution of Municipalities.  Composition of Municipalities. Constitution and composition of Wards Committees, etc. Reservation of seats.  Duration of Municipalities, etc. Disqualifications for membership.  Powers, authority and responsibilities of Municipalities, etc. Power to impose taxes by, and Funds of, the Municipalities.  Finance Commission.  Audit of accounts of Municipalities. Elections to the Municipalities.  Application to Union territories.  Part not to apply to certain areas.   Committee for district planning.  Committee for Metropolitan planning.   Continuance of existing laws and Municipalities.   Bar to interference by Courts in electoral matters.

THE SCHEDULED AND TRIBAL AREAS

Administration of Scheduled Areas and Tribal Areas. Formation of an autonomous State comprising certain tribal areas in Assam and creation of local Legislature or Council of Ministers or both therefor.   

RELATIONS BETWEEN THE UNION AND THE STATES

Distribution of Legislative Powers. Extent of laws made by Parliament and by the Legislatures of States. Subject-matter of laws made by Parliament and by the Legislatures of States. Power of Parliament to provide for the establishment of certain additional courts. Residuary powers of legislation. Power of Parliament to legislate with respect to a matter in the State List in the national interest. Power of Parliament to legislate with respect to any matter in the State List if a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation. Inconsistency between laws made by Parliament under articles 249 and 250 and laws made by the Legislatures of States. Power of Parliament to legislate for two or more States by consent and adoption of such legislation by any other State.  Legislation for giving effect to international agreements.  Inconsistency between laws made by Parliament and laws made by the Legislatures of States. Requirements as to recommendations and previous sanctions to be regarded as matters of procedure only.

ADMINISTRATIVE RELATIONS

Obligation of States and the Union. Control of the Union over States in certain cases. Power of the Union to confer powers, etc., on States in certain cases.  Power of the States to entrust functions to the Union. Jurisdiction of the Union in relation to territories outside India. Public acts, records and judicial proceedings. Disputes relating to Waters. Adjudication of disputes relating to waters of  inter-State rivers or river valleys. Co-ordination between States  Provisions with respect to an inter-State Council. 

FINANCE, PROPERTY, CONTRACTS AND SUITS

Taxes not to be imposed save by authority of law. Consolidated Funds and public accounts of India and of the States.  Contingency Fund. Distribution of Revenues between the Union and the States. Duties levied by the Union but collected and appropriated by the State. Service tax levied by Union and collected by the Union and the States. Taxes levied and collected by the Union but assigned to the States. Taxes levied and  distributed between the Union and the States.  Surcharge on certain duties and taxes for purposes of the Union.  Grants in lieu of export duty on jute and jute products. Prior recommendation of President required to Bills affecting taxation in which States are interested. Grants from the Union to certain States. Taxes on professions, trades, callings and employments.  Savings.  Calculation of  “net proceeds”, etc.  Finance Commission.  Recommendations of the Finance Commission. Miscellaneous financial provisions. Expenditure defrayable by the Union or a State out of its revenues. Custody, etc., of Consolidated Funds, Contingency Funds and moneys credited to the public accounts.  Custody of suitors’  deposits and other moneys received by public servants and courts. Exemption of property of the Union from State taxation. Restrictions as to imposition of tax on the sale or purchase of goods.  Exemption from taxes on electricity.  Exemption from taxation by States in respect of water or electricity in certain cases. Exemption of property and income of a State from Union taxation. Adjustment in respect of certain expenses and pensions. Annual payment to certain Devaswom Funds.

BORROWING

Borrowing by the Government of India.  Borrowing by States.

 

PROPERTY, CONTRACTS, RIGHTS, LIABILITIES, OBLIGATIONS AND SUITS

Succession to property, assets, rights, liabilities and obligations in certain cases. Succession to property, assets, rights, liabilities and obligations in other cases. Property accruing by escheat or laps or as bona vacantia. Things of value within territorial waters or continental shelf and resources of the exclusive economic zone to vest in the Union.  Power to carry on trade, etc.  Contracts. Suits and proceedings.

RIGHT TO PROPERTY

Persons not to be deprived of property save by authority of law.

TRADE, COMMERCE AND INTERCOURSE WITHIN THE TERRITORY OF INDIA

Freedom of trade, commerce and intercourse. Power of Parliament to impose restrictions on trade, commerce and intercourse. Restrictions on the legislative powers of the Union and of the States with regard to trade and commerce.  Restrictions on trade, commerce and intercourse among States. Saving of existing laws and laws providing for State monopolies.           

SERVICES UNDER THE UNION AND THE STATES

Interpretation. Recruitment and conditions of service of persons serving the Union or a State.  Tenure of office of persons serving the Union or a State. Dismissal, removal or reduction in rank of persons employed in civil capacities under the Union or a State.  All-India services. Power of Parliament to vary or revoke conditions of service of officers of certain services. Transitional provisions.

PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSIONS

Public Service Commissions for the Union and for the States. Appointment and term of office of members. Removal and suspension of a member of a Public Service Commission. Power to make regulations as to conditions of service of members and staff of the Commission. Prohibition as to the holding of offices by members of Commission on ceasing to be such members. Functions of Public Service Commissions.  Power to extend functions of Public Service Commissions.  Expenses of Public Service Commissions. Reports of Public Service Commissions.

TRIBUNALS

Administrative tribunals.  Tribunals for other matters.

ELECTIONS

Superintendence, direction and control of elections to be vested in an Election Commission. No person to be ineligible for inclusion in, or to claim to be included in a special, electoral roll on grounds of religion, race, caste or sex. Elections to the House of the People and to the Legislative Assemblies of States to be on the basis of adult suffrage. Power of Parliament to make provision with respect to elections to Legislatures. Power of Legislature of a State to make provision with respect to elections to such Legislature.  Bar to interference by courts in electoral matters.

SPECIAL PROVISIONS RELATING TO CERTAIN CLASSES

Reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in the House of the People.  Representation of the Anglo-Indian community in the House of the People. Reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in the Legislative Assemblies of the States. Representation of the Anglo-Indian community in the Legislative Assemblies of the States.  Reservation of seats and special representation to cease after seventy years. Claims of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes to services and posts. Special provision for Anglo-Indian community in certain services. Special provision with respect to educational grants for the benefit of Anglo-Indian Community. National Commission for Scheduled Castes.  National Commission for Scheduled Tribes. Control of the Union over the Administration of Scheduled Areas and the welfare of Scheduled Tribes. Appointment of  a Commission to investigate the conditions of backward classes. Scheduled Castes. Scheduled Tribes.

OFFICIAL LANGUAGE

Official language of the Union. Commission and Committee of Parliament on official language.  Official language or languages of a State. Official language for communication between one State and another or between a State and the Union.  Special provision relating to language spoken by a section of the population of a State.

LANGUAGE OF THE SUPREME COURT, HIGH COURTS, ETC.

Language to be used in the Supreme Court and in the High Courts and for Acts, Bills, etc. Special procedure for enactment of certain laws relating to language.

SPECIAL DIRECTIVES

Language to be used in representations for redress of grievances. Facilities for instruction in mother-tongue at primary stage. Special Officer for linguistic minorities.  Directive for development of the Hindi language.

EMERGENCY PROVISIONS

Proclamation of Emergency. Effect of Proclamation of Emergency. Application of provisions relating to distribution of revenues while a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation. Duty of the Union to protect States against external aggression and internal disturbance. Provisions in case of failure of constitutional machinery in States.  Exercise of legislative powers under Proclamation issued under article 356. Suspension  of provisions of article 19 during emergencies. Suspension of the enforcement of the rights conferred by Part III during emergencies. Provisions as to financial emergency.

MISCELLANEOUS

Protection of President and Governors and Rajpramukhs. Protection of publication of proceedings of Parliament and State Legislatures. Disqualification for appointment on remunerative political post. Bar to interference by courts in disputes arising out of certain treaties, agreements, etc. Recognition granted to Rulers of Indian States to cease and privy purses to be abolished. Special provisions as to major ports and aerodromes. Effect of failure to comply with, or to give effect to, directions given by the Union.

AMENDMENT OF THE CONSTITUTION

Power of Parliament to amend the Constitution and procedure therefore.   Temporary power to Parliament to make laws with respect to certain matters in the State List as if they were matters in the Concurrent List. Temporary provisions with respect to the State of Jammu and Kashmir. Special provision with respect to the States of Maharashtra and Gujarat. Special provision with respect to the State of Nagaland. Special provision with respect to the State of Assam. Special provision with respect to the State of Manipur. Special provisions with respect to the State of Andhra Pradesh. Establishment of Central University in Andhra Pradesh. Special provisions with respect to the State of Sikkim. Special provision with respect to the State of Mizoram.  Special provision with respect to the State of Arunachal Pradesh.  Special provision with respect to the State of  Goa. Continuance in force of existing laws and their adaptation. Power of the President to adapt laws. Power of President to make order in respect of persons under preventive detention in certain cases.  Provisions as to Judges of the Federal Court and proceedings pending in the Federal Court or before His    Majesty in Council. Courts, authorities and officers to continue to function subject to the provisions of the Constitution. Provisions as to Judges of High Courts. Provisions as to Comptroller and Auditor-General of India. Provisions as to Public Service Commissions. Special provision as to duration of Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly. Power of the President to remove difficulties.

 
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