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India is about 1/3 the size of the United States, India is the seventh largest country in the world, the second most populous country in the world. ● ● India is the largest democracy in the world. ● ● The Kumbh Mela (or Grand Pitcher Festival) is a huge Hindu religious festival that takes place in India every 12 years. In 2001, 60 million people attended, breaking the record for the world’s biggest gathering. 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They extend 1,500 miles and are slowly growing taller, by almost an inch (2.5 cm) a year. Several ancient Indian monasteries are found nestled in the grandeur of these mountains. ● ● With 150,000 post offices, India has the largest postal network in the world. ● ● The Bengal tiger is India’s national animal. ● ● Alexander the Great of Macedon (356-323 B.C.) was one of the first important figures to bring India into contact with the West. After his death, a link between Europe and the East would not be restored until Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama (1460-1524) landed in Calicut, India, in 1498. ● ● The British Raj, or British rule, lasted from 1858 to 1947 (although they had a strong presence in India since the 1700s). British influence is still seen in Indian architecture, education system, transportation, and politics. ● ● Every major world religion is represented in India. Additionally, Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism all originated in India. ● ● India has the world’s largest movie industry, based in the city of Mumbai (known as the “City of Dreams”). The B in “Bollywood” comes from Bombay, the former name for Mumbai. Almost all Bollywood movies are musicals. ● ● Mohandas K. Gandhi (1869-1948) is known around the world as Mahatma, which is an honorific title meaning “Great Soul” in the ancient Indian language of Sanskrit. ● ● ● ● ● The lotus is sacred to both Hindus and Buddhists. ● The Bahá'í house of worship in Delhi, known as the “Lotus Temple,” is shaped like a lotus flower with 27 gigantic “petals” that are covered in marble. ● ● The banyan, or Indian fig tree, is considered a symbol of immortality and is mentioned in many Indian myths and legends. This self-renewing plant is India’s national tree. ● ● Marigold flowers are used as decoration for Hindu marriages and are a symbol of good fortune and happiness. ● ● The name “India” derives from the River Indus, which most likely is derived from the Sanskrit sindhu, meaning “river.” The official Sanskrit name of India is Bharat, after the legendary king in the epicMahabharata. ● ● Indians made significant contributions to calculus, trigonometry, and algebra. The decimal system was invented in India in 100 B.C. The concept of zero as a number is also attributed to India. ● ● The national fruit of India is the mango. The national bird is the peacock, which was initially bred for food. ● ● Hindi and English are the official languages of India. The government also recognizes 17 other languages (Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Nepali, Manipuri, Konkani, Kannada, Kashmiri, Malayalam, Marathi, Oriya, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, and Urdu). Apart from these languages, about 1,652 dialects are spoken in the country. ● ● India has the world’s third largest road network at 1.9 million miles. It also has the world’s second largest rail network, which is the world’s largest civilian employer. ● ● Bathing in the Ganges in particular is thought to take away a person’s sins. It is not unusual to spread a loved one’s ashes in the Ganges. ● ● Most Indians rinse their hands, legs, and face before eating a meal. ● ● It is traditional to wear white, not black, to a funeral in India. Widows will often wear white in contrast to the colorful clothes of married or single women. ● ● India is the world’s largest tea producer, and tea (chai) is its most popular beverage. ● ● The Taj Mahal (“crown palace”) was built by Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan (1592-1666) for his beloved wife Mumtaz Mahal (1593-1631). Made of marble it has intricate workmanship. It took 22,000 workmen 22 years to complete it. ● ● The first and greatest civilization in ancient India developed around the valley of the Indus River (now Pakistan) around 3000 B.C. Called the Indus Valley civilization, this early empire was larger than any other empire, including Egypt and Mesopotamia. ● ● After the great Indus Civilization collapsed in 2000 B.C., groups of Indo-Europeans called Aryans (“noble ones”) traveled to northwest India and reigned during what is called the Vedic age. The mingling of ideas from the Aryan and Indus Valley religions formed the basis of Hinduism, and the gods Shiva, Kali, and Brahma all have their roots in Aryan civilization. The Aryans also recorded the Vedas, the first Hindu scriptures, and introduced a caste system based on ethnicity and occupation. ● ● Chandragupta Maurya (340-290 B.C.), a leader in India who established the Mauryan Empire (321-185 B.C.), was guarded by a band of women on horseback. ● Sanskrit is the mother of all the European ● languages. Sanskrit is the most suitable language for computer software reported in Forbes magazine, ● July 1987. ● Ayurveda is the earliest school of medicine known to humans.Charaka, the father of medicine consolidated Ayurveda 2500 years ago. ● India never invaded any country in her last 10,000 years of history. ● India invented the Number System. Zero was invented by Aryabhatta. ● India never invaded any country in her last 10,000 years of history. ● India invented the Number System. Zero was invented by Aryabhatta. ● ● India never invaded any country in her last 10,000 years of history. ● India invented the Number System. Zero was invented by Aryabhatta. ● ●
Meaning of Lohri Song

SUNDAR MUNDARIYE….HO! The Lohri leitmotif.

There is a large tract of semi-arid terrain lying between the rivers Chenab and Ravi called the Saandal Bar. (It now falls in the districts of Sheikhupura and Faislabad.) The people of this area were known to provide the stiffest opposition to the Muslim marauders.

They never paid any taxes; rather, they openly defied the authorities and indulged in looting the royal caravans and treasures. 'Saandal', a warlord of Bhatti Rajput clan led these tribals.

Prince Jahangir, the heir apparent, fired with zeal to prove his prowess carried out campaigns to consolidate the Mughal authority in the region. He captured and executed Saandal and his son,Farid. Their skins were peeled off and hung at the Delhi gate of the Fort of Lahore to instill a sense of fear amongst the rebels.

However, the son of Farid, Abdullah or Dullah as he is fondly called, remained unfazed and continued his defiant activities. Dullah earned notoriety in the eyes of authorities. He, like Robin Hood, looted wealthy landlords and Imperial officers and distributed the booty amongst the poor. He came to be regarded as a father figure for the distressed and oppressed. and became a living embodiment of the chivalrous and secular, socio-cultural character of the region.

Dullah was the contemporary of yet another Super Human, Poet Divine, Sri Guru Arjan Dev, the Fifth Sikh Guru, who sacrificed his life at the altar of humanity at Lahore.

It is believed that Dullah had restored the prestige of an innocent girl whose modesty was outraged by a Mughal general. Dullah had adopted this girl as his daughter and arranged her marriage in the Jungles of 'Saandal Bar'.

As there was no priest nearby to chant the Vedic Hymns and solemnise the marriage Dullah had lit a bonfire and composed an impromtu song: Sundari Mundariye…… The bride and the groom were asked to take pheras of the bonfire as Dullah sang this hilarious song...

The 'ho's are in chorus…..

Sunder mundriye ho! ( Oh, you pretty lass)

Tera kaun vicaharaa ho! (Who is your protector, you pitiable one? )

Dullah Bhatti walla ho! (There's this man called Dullah, from Village Bhatti)

Dullhe di dhee vyayae ho! (Dullah's getting her married as his own daughter)

Ser shakkar payee ho! (He gave 1 kg sugar!)

Kudi da laal pathaka ho! (The girls is wearing a red suit!)

Kudi da saalu paatta ho! (But her shawl is torn!)

Saalu kaun samete ho ! (Who will stitch her shawl?)

Chacha gaali dese ho! (Her Uncle will scold her)

Chacha choori kutti ho! (The uncle made choori {a Squashed Roti with jaggery and Ghee}

zamidara lutti ho! (The landlords ate it!)

Zamindaar sudhaye ho! (Dullah gave the landlords lots more to eat!)

Ginn-ginn bhole aaye ho! (Lots of innocent guys came)

Ek bhola reh gaya! (One innocent boy got left behind)

Sipahee pakad ke lai gaya! (The police arrested him!)

Sipahee ne mari itt! (The policeman hit him with a brick!)

Phannve ro te phannve pit! (Now, you may cry or howl!)

Sanoo de de lohri te teri jeeve jodi! (Give us our Lohri & may you live long as a couple!)


Til (Sesame seeds) and Rorhi (a form of sweet jaggery) are meant to keep the body warm. These two terms Til+ Rorhi combined to form Tilrorhi, which eventually was corrupted to ----- Lohri.

 
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